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The Ocean VideoThis Incredible Animation Shows How Deep The Ocean Really Is
The ocean -Unter der Wasseroberfläche hängt ein drei Meter langes Tuch, das dank seiner Dichte auch kleinste Teile mitziehen soll. Die Reise zum östlichen Müllwirbel im Pazifik ist lang, sie dauert etwa einen Monat. Damit diese schwimmende Barriere nicht vor dem Müll herschwimmt, sondern ihn fängt, hat sie einen Anker, der in Metern Tiefe frei im Wasser hängt. Laurent Lebreton — Grafik: Verschwörungstheorien "Es gibt immer diesen Feind im Hintergrund". Diese Seite wurde zuletzt am November um
A new ocean cleanup prototype is being deployed on the North Sea today. It is one of the last steps as we prepare to launch the first cleanup system in the Great Pacific Garbage Patch this summer.
To understand how we arrived at this point, here is a brief history of the North Sea prototypes, and the reasons why we're deploying another one.
Hope we can do a better job this time than we did with the prototypes". The data gathered during the tow-test on the North Sea Prototype a week ago gave the engineers enough confidence to move ahead with this key component of the system.
We caught up with our Project Engineer on the Assembly Yard in Alameda just before the first components of cleanup system 1 arrived on site.
The first batch of meters has left our manufacturing site and is now in transit to the Assembly yard. The crew has succesfully completed the first weld of two floater sections, officially marking the beginning of the assembly.
In total, 51 of these sections will be put together. At the meter mark, we will take the system out for a tow-test.
Having completed all welds for the meter test section, the assembly crew has now moved into the screen assembly phase.
Our preliminary conclusions from the tests are that the motions and forces are in the range of what we expected based on our numerical modeling.
As the tow test of the meter unit approaches, Boyan summarizes what is left to accomplish before we launch the first cleanup system into the Great Pacific Garbage Patch later this summer.
The meter tow test unit is now completely lowered into the lagoon, where it will receive full inspection and final checks before departure. The system will rely on the sun to power everything from AIS, satellite communications, cameras and sensors.
They just reported that the system came out of last week's rough testing conditions without significant issues.
The offshore crew made it back into the San Francisco Bay after more than two weeks testing the meter unit in towing configuration.
With the tow test successfully completed, the yard crew received the green light to continue the assembly. The test piece has now been cut in half, allowing us to put the remaining sections in between in the coming weeks.
The white box is the welding station. The performance of the tow test unit left the team feeling more confident with this current design iteration and has exemplified that the system is ready for the challenge it is set to face in the Pacific.
This includes both functional markings, as well as logos and the soon-to-be-revealed name of the system. The crew has started lowering the system into the lagoon.
This operation will progress in sync with the skirt assembly. In Rotterdam, the research team is gearing up for a thorough data collection expedition, which will be running during the System deployment.
A few numbers to put this in perspective: These empty containers just arrived at the yard. They will be loaded on our deployment and support vessel, the Maersk Launcher.
If all goes according to plan, they will soon come back filled with the first plastic collected by System We are currently assembling the stabilizers of the cleanup system.
As the name indicates, their purpose is to provide stability to the system and prevent it from rotating. In total, ten of these stabilizers will be attached to the system, consisting of either single or double floaters.
Note that on this aerial shot, we can clearly see how the floater absorbs the energy of the wind waves, which is the main driving force behind the cleanup system.
With the system now fully launched in the lagoon, the assembly crew has moved on to assembling the last stabilizers and solar-powered electronics.
After six months of assembly, we can now announce that System is officially complete. It is currently positioned entirely in the Seaplane Lagoon — the sheltered body of water adjacent our assembly yard in Alameda.
The cleanup system will make tow with the Maersk Launcher at Anchorage 9 on September 7th, the morning before the launch. Meet MegaMaid, our our auxiliary vessel that will be assisting the plastic collection operations.
As we're approaching the test site, the crew is preparing the closing lines to lock the system in operational configuration.
Clear blue skies and calm waters, perfect conditions to perform the first installation of System at the test site.
Following the successful launch from the San Francisco Bay, System traveled nautical miles to commence the Pacific Trials. The trials will last approximately two weeks and are a crucial step before we take System the remaining nautical miles to the Great Pacific Garbage Patch.
Unfavorable weather over the last couple days prevented the offshore crew from running new tests. Priority was given to daily system inspections as well as deploying our autonomous environmental monitoring drone ship.
While the test plan is a little behind schedule, the engineering team has not yet seen any unexpected issues and aims to conduct the final tests this weekend.
After two hours of evaluation and discussion, it was concluded that System shall continue to the Great Pacific Garbage Patch. We are almost at the deployment location in the Great Pacific Garbage Patch at Roughly 50 nautical miles to go.
Thank you to the offshore crew for your work. We are ready to start the cleanup. In the upcoming months, we are hoping to confirm its plastic capturing efficiency and survivability; thus proving our technology.
Project Manager Henk van Dalen explains the recent progress and steps forward. It will still take a few weeks before real conclusions can be drawn, but some early observations: Now analysing behavior data to understand why".
Maersk Launcher left Wilson, soon to be relieved by slightly smaller Maersk Transporter to continue monitoring and plastic collection in the coming months.
We would like to thank the person crew on board and Maersk, Maersk Supply Service and DeepGreen for making this first shift successful.
The second shift crew is approaching System in the Great Pacific Garbage Patch after a brief transition period between vessels. While the first shift focused on installation, evaluating performance and troubleshooting now take priority.
First results and observations coming soon. The world's first ocean cleanup system Launched on September 8, from San Francisco, System intends to prove the concept of The Ocean Cleanup's technology in the Great Pacific Garbage Patch, the world's largest accumulation zone of ocean plastics - situated halfway between Hawaii and California.
System Timeline Follow the journey of System from procurement to launch, and stay informed on the latest updates. First post Last post. Changes in the thermohaline circulation are thought to have significant impacts on Earth's energy budget.
In so far as the thermohaline circulation governs the rate at which deep waters reach the surface, it may also significantly influence atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations.
For a discussion of the possibilities of changes to the thermohaline circulation under global warming , see shutdown of thermohaline circulation.
It is often stated that the thermohaline circulation is the primary reason that the climate of Western Europe is so temperate.
An alternate hypothesis claims that this is largely incorrect, and that Europe is warm mostly because it lies downwind of an ocean basin, and because atmospheric waves bring warm air north from the subtropics.
The Antarctic Circumpolar Current encircles that continent, influencing the area's climate and connecting currents in several oceans.
One of the most dramatic forms of weather occurs over the oceans: The ocean has a significant effect on the biosphere.
Oceanic evaporation , as a phase of the water cycle , is the source of most rainfall, and ocean temperatures determine climate and wind patterns that affect life on land.
Life within the ocean evolved 3 billion years prior to life on land. Both the depth and the distance from shore strongly influence the biodiversity of the plants and animals present in each region.
In addition, many land animals have adapted to living a major part of their life on the oceans. For instance, seabirds are a diverse group of birds that have adapted to a life mainly on the oceans.
They feed on marine animals and spend most of their lifetime on water, many only going on land for breeding. Other birds that have adapted to oceans as their living space are penguins , seagulls and pelicans.
Seven species of turtles, the sea turtles , also spend most of their time in the oceans. A zone of rapid salinity increase with depth is called a halocline.
The temperature of maximum density of seawater decreases as its salt content increases. Freezing temperature of water decreases with salinity, and boiling temperature of water increases with salinity.
If precipitation exceeds evaporation, as is the case in polar and temperate regions, salinity will be lower. If evaporation exceeds precipitation, as is the case in tropical regions, salinity will be higher.
Thus, oceanic waters in polar regions have lower salinity content than oceanic waters in temperate and tropical regions.
Salinity can be calculated using the chlorinity, which is a measure of the total mass of halogen ions includes fluorine, chlorine, bromine, and iodine in seawater.
By international agreement, the following formula is used to determine salinity:. The average chlorinity is about Many of the world's goods are moved by ship between the world's seaports.
Some of the major harvests are shrimp , fish , crabs , and lobster. The motions of the ocean surface, known as undulations or waves , are the partial and alternate rising and falling of the ocean surface.
The series of mechanical waves that propagate along the interface between water and air is called swell. Although Earth is the only known planet with large stable bodies of liquid water on its surface and the only one in the Solar System , other celestial bodies are thought to have large oceans.
The gas giants , Jupiter and Saturn , are thought to lack surfaces and instead have a stratum of liquid hydrogen ; however their planetary geology is not well understood.
The possibility of the ice giants Uranus and Neptune having hot, highly compressed, supercritical water under their thick atmospheres has been hypothesised.
Although their composition is still not fully understood, a study by Wiktorowicz and Ingersall ruled out the possibility of such a water "ocean" existing on Neptune,  though some studies have suggested that exotic oceans of liquid diamond are possible.
The Mars ocean hypothesis suggests that nearly a third of the surface of Mars was once covered by water, though the water on Mars is no longer oceanic much of it residing in the ice caps.
The possibility continues to be studied along with reasons for their apparent disappearance. Astronomers think that Venus had liquid water and perhaps oceans in its very early history.
A global layer of liquid water thick enough to decouple the crust from the mantle is thought to be present on the natural satellites Titan , Europa , Enceladus and, with less certainty, Callisto , Ganymede   and Triton.
Geysers have been found on Saturn's moon Enceladus , possibly originating from about 10 kilometers 6. Large bodies of liquid hydrocarbons are thought to be present on the surface of Titan , although they are not large enough to be considered oceans and are sometimes referred to as lakes or seas.
The Cassini—Huygens space mission initially discovered only what appeared to be dry lakebeds and empty river channels, suggesting that Titan had lost what surface liquids it might have had.
Cassini's more recent fly-by of Titan offers radar images that strongly suggest hydrocarbon lakes exist near the colder polar regions. Titan is thought to have a subsurface liquid-water ocean under the ice and hydrocarbon mix that forms its outer crust.
Ceres appears to be differentiated into a rocky core and icy mantle and may harbour a liquid-water ocean under its surface. Not enough is known of the larger trans-Neptunian objects to determine whether they are differentiated bodies capable of supporting oceans, although models of radioactive decay suggest that Pluto ,  Eris , Sedna , and Orcus have oceans beneath solid icy crusts approximately to km thick.
Some planets and natural satellites outside the Solar System are likely to have oceans, including possible water ocean planets similar to Earth in the habitable zone or "liquid-water belt".
The detection of oceans, even through the spectroscopy method, however is likely extremely difficult and inconclusive.
Other possible candidates are merely speculated based on their mass and position in the habitable zone include planet though little is actually known of their composition.
Some scientists speculate Keplerb may be an "ocean-like" planet. Gliese b is speculated to have an ocean of "hot ice".
Terrestrial planets will acquire water during their accretion, some of which will be buried in the magma ocean but most of it will go into a steam atmosphere, and when the atmosphere cools it will collapse on to the surface forming an ocean.
There will also be outgassing of water from the mantle as the magma solidifies—this will happen even for planets with a low percentage of their mass composed of water, so "super-Earth exoplanets may be expected to commonly produce water oceans within tens to hundreds of millions of years of their last major accretionary impact.
Oceans, seas, lakes and other bodies of liquids can be composed of liquids other than water, for example the hydrocarbon lakes on Titan. The possibility of seas of nitrogen on Triton was also considered but ruled out.
Supercritical fluids, although not liquids, do share various properties with liquids. Underneath the thick atmospheres of the planets Uranus and Neptune , it is expected that these planets are composed of oceans of hot high-density fluid mixtures of water, ammonia and other volatiles.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. A body of saline water that composes much of a planet's hydrosphere. For other uses, see Ocean disambiguation.
Borders of the oceans. Encyclopedia of Earth ,      International Hydrographic Organization ,  Regional Oceanography: Extraterrestrial liquid water and List of largest lakes and seas in the Solar System.
Oceans portal Ecology portal Environment portal Geography portal Weather portal. Extraterrestrial liquid water Ocean planet Ice planet.
Retrieved May 17, Retrieved February 21, Retrieved February 5, Retrieved February 6, Retrieved 27 September Archived from the original on Retrieved August 18, Univ of Zagreb, UN Atlas of the Oceans.
Retrieved 7 February As an approximation, the Arctic Ocean may be regarded as an estuary of the Atlantic Ocean.
The oceans occupy about 3. There are km of oceanic coastlines in the world. Retrieved 17 October Retrieved 23 March The Chemistry of Ocean Color".
An Introduction to Earth's Diverse Environment". Oceanic Climate Change and Sea Level". Wind-Driven and Thermohaline Processes".
Patterns and Mechanisms" PDF. Annual Review of Marine Science. Archived from the original PDF on Introduction to Physical Oceanography: Retrieved 3 April Retrieved 8 April Molten under pressure" Submitted manuscript.
Planetary and Space Science. Encyclopedia of the Solar System 2nd ed.